Diabetes is a disorder associated with high blood sugar levels caused by insufficient or ineffective insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. Blood sugar level is controlled by insulin hormone. If insulin production in the body is not enough or insulin hormone has resistance at the cellular level, blood sugar will rise and diabetes will develop.

Types of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is divided into Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 is called Type 2 if the patient’s body is not producing insulin, and Type 2 if it is not.

Symptoms and Findings of Diabetes Mellitus
It can be listed as frequent urination, excessive thirst, blurred vision, weakness and fatigue, weight loss, feeling of hunger, nausea, vomiting, breathing odor, frequent urinary tract infections, cuts in size, dry and itchy skin and easy healing of wounds.

Treatment of Diabetes
The goal in diabetes treatment is to regulate blood sugar and to prevent blood sugar levels from falling. This balance is crucial to prevent the development of complications or to slow the progression of advanced complications.

Diabetes control means keeping your blood sugar level nearest to normal.

Healthy eating:
Excess consumption of all nutrients, especially foods containing carbohydrates, increases blood sugar levels. Providing patient-specific nutritional therapy is crucial in ensuring blood glucose control.

Exercise:
Exercise allows the body to use glucose effectively and control blood sugar. It also helps people with obesity type 2 diabetes lose weight.

Drug / Insulin:
Insulin is a hormone that helps the sugar used by the body to be used by the body to be used by the body, thus preventing the blood sugar from rising. Because people with type 1 diabetes do not have insulin production, they have insulin requirements to live. People with type 2 diabetes may have oral medications or insulin requirements to help balance blood sugar.

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
Failure to control blood sugar results in short or long term health problems. Diabetes, along with small and large vessels, can also cause nerves to become damaged. These damages, which are caused by diabetes, are called “complications”.

What are the Acute Complications of Diabetes?
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia):
Hypoglycaemia is the overdose of blood sugar due to too much insulin intake, too much exercise, or insufficient energy.

ketoacidosis:
Known as the diabetes coma, ketoacidosis is a severe condition due to the absence of insulin. It is most common in people with type 1 diabetes.

Lactic acidosis:
The accumulation of lactic acid in the body is defined as lactic acidosis. Cells make lactic acid when using non-glucose fuel as energy. This condition, which is seen less frequently, mainly affects persons with type 2 diabetes.

Bacterial and fungal infections:
All organs, especially the skin and nails of people with diabetes, are quite vulnerable to bacterial and fungal infections.

What are the chronic complications of diabetes?
The high blood sugar level for a long time destroys nerves with large and small blood vessels. There are problems with the destruction in which organs.

Cardiovascular diseases:
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among people with diabetes in many countries. The risk of heart disease or stroke in these patients is 2-5 times higher than in non-diabetic patients. The disease also affects the vessels in the legs and this can lead to amputation (loss of joints and limbs) with neuropathy.

retinopathy
(Eye damage): leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in adults. 2% of people with 10-15 years of uncontrolled diabetes experience blindness while 10% have severe visual impairment.

nephropathy
(Kidney damage): It is a great threat to people with diabetes. 40% of people with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes develop severe kidney disease, which may require dialysis and / or kidney transplantation when they reach 50 years of age.

neuropathy
(Nerve damage): Affects up to 50% of people with diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy can lead to loss of sense in legs and feet, which can result in foot wound and limb loss. Diabetic neuropathy can also lead to impotence.

Operation of the Diabetes Mellitus
The group of patients who benefit from metabolic surgery is type 2 diabetes. However, it should not be forgotten that every type 2 diabetes patient is not an operative candidate. Patients with type 2 diabetes should have surgery if they can not control blood sugar despite diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, medication and insulin use. Patients should be examined with a detailed and multi-disciplinary approach before surgery planning; the best treatment alternatives should be shared with the patient.